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Bottom electrode
Design


A structure of area of connection
steel-copper, kh100, kh20000


An example of bottom electrode
(Limit of fluidity – 190H/mm2 Temporal resistance – 320H/mm2)



Operation




In the world significant interest to arc furnaces of a direct current (DC EAF), especially in a machine-building complex is shown. Despite of essential advantages of DC EAF in front of furnaces of an alternating current, there are also serious lacks. One of them is low durability bottom electrode and adjoining refractory. In DC EAF, as a rule, use bottom electrodes of rod type with the down copper water-cooled part to which the top steel part contacting with the bath is attached. During the heat under action of a heat flux from a bath (qbath) and heat of Joule (qJ) the stationary condition at which the liquid and solid phases of a steel part of an electrode are in thermodynamic balance (fig. 1) is established. Influence of heat of Joule for operating conditions of the majority of furnaces of small and average capacity (force of a current up to 20 kА) is insignificant (fig.2). The basic influence on a thermal condition of the bottom electrode defined by thickness of not fused steel part, renders speed of melt motion under action of Lorentz force and thermal convection (fig. 3).

Our Company develops constructive decisions of the bottom electrode with reference to concrete conditions of the Customer in view of own experimental and settlement data to provide comprehensible characteristics at the minimal capital and operational expenses; carries out supervision at installation and put of delivered products in operation.



Fig.1- Scheme of bottom electrode thermal state.



Fig.2 – Part of Joule heat (β) in a heat balance of bottom
electrode depending on current force (I, kА).



Fig.3 – Length of solid steel part of bottom electrode (Н,m)
versus melt velosity (w, м/с) at current force 12kА.

 
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